Deoghar is the headquarters city of Deoghar District in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre, having in Baidyanath Temple one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and also one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India
Deoghar is a Hindi word and the literal meaning of 'Deoghar' is abode ('ghar') of the Gods and Goddesses ('dev'). Deoghar is also known as "Baidyanath Dham", "Baba Dham", "B. Deoghar". The origin of Baidyanathdham is lost in antiquity. It has been referred as Haritakivan, Ketakivan, etc., in Sanskrit Texts. The name Deoghar seems to be of recent origin and probably dates from erection of the great temple of Lord Baidyanath. Although, the name of the builder of the temple is not traceable, certain parts of the front portion of the temple are said to have been built by Puran Mal, an ancestor of the Maharaja of Giddhour, in 1596.
Deoghar is located at 24.48°N 86.7°E. It has an average elevation of 254 metres (833 feet).
Deoghar has a picturesque location. To the north of the town there is a wood called baba Jungle after a fakir; to the north-west is a low wooded hill called Nandan Pahar; and to the east about 10 miles away there is a low range of hills known as Trikuti or Trikutaparvata. There are a number of small hills to the south-east, south and southwest. There are two rivulets Yamunajor and Dharua near the town. The countryside around Deoghar has an attractive set-up with undulations, water courses and small hills.
The climate is dry and congenial and Deoghar is still considered a health resort in spite of the great congestion particularly due to the temple of Vaidyanath (also spelled Baidyanath), as well as having the criminal and civil courts and a large number of Government establishments.
The nearest railway station is Baidyanathdham. Jasidih Junction is about 7 km from Baidyanathdham railway station, which is on the main line of Howrah-Delhi route of Indian railway. It is about 229 km from Patna (capital of Bihar) and 322 km from Ranchi (capital of Jharkhand) and about 315 km from Kolkata (capital of West Bengal). there is a sub city called Rohini near Deoghar well known for independence stuggle.
Major educational institutes in Deoghar include BIT_Deoghar, Deoghar College, ASC College,Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Deoghar, St.Francis School, Modern Public School, R.Mitra High School, established in 1914,, DAV Public School and Dev Sangha National School,R.L shroff High School,Red Rose school,Superb Scholar School,S.J Academy,St.Xaviers School,Blue Bells School and many more nurturing educational institutes.
As of 2011 India census, Deoghar had a population of 203,116. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Deoghar has an average literacy rate of 66.34%, Lower than the national average of 74.4%: male literacy is 79.13% and, female literacy is 52.39%. In Deoghar, 17.62% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Deoghar is well-connected with Ranchi, Patna, Calcutta and all nearby major cities by road.
Deoghar is an important railway station on Jasidih–Dumka–Rampurhat railway line, 6 km from Jasidih junction. A railway line from Jasidih to Deoghar has existed for a long time due to the importance of Deoghar as a religious place and a railway station (called Vaidyanathdham or Baidynathdham Deoghar railway station) has existed inside the Deoghar town. The station is connected with Ranchi by a daily express train. This railway line could not be extended through inhabited area. Therefore a new railway line has been built from Jasidih and the new Deoghar railway station has been built north of the Deoghar town.
Two railway lines branch out from this new Deoghar railway station. The railway line to Dumka goes east from Deoghar and will connect with Rampurhat, perhaps in 2014. It has been completed up to Sikaripara. The new line from Deoghar to Sultanganj goes towards the north and will connect with Sultanganj railway station on the Kiul-Jamalpur-Bhagalpur railway line. The Deoghar–Sultanganj railway line has been completed up to Chandan railway station. A daily passenger train runs from Jasidih to Chandan.
Baba Vaidyanath Temple in Deoghar
Deoghar also known as Baidyanath Dham is an important Hindu pilgrimage. It is one of the twelve jyotirlingas, and also one of the 51 shaktipeeths and is famous for the mela of Shrawan 4th month according to the Hindu calendar system. It is the only place in India where the jyotirlinga and the saktipeeth are together. They lay side by side. Each year between July and August (on the eve of the month of Shraavana) about 7 to 8 million devotees come from various part of India to offer holy water from the Ganges at Sultangunj; almost 108 km from Deoghar to present it to Shiva. An unbroken line of people in saffron-dyed clothes stretches over the full 108 km for the month.
The temple  of Baidyanath or Shiva is the most important of all the temples in the courtyard. The temple faces the east and is a plain stone structure with a pyramidal tower, 72 feet tall.
The top contains three ascending shaped gold vessels that are compactly set, and were donated by the Maharaja of Giddhaur. Besides these pitcher shaped vessels, there is a Punchsula (Five knives in Tridenta shape), which is rare. In the inner top there is an eight pettaled lotus jewel called Chandrakanta Mani.
The lingam installed inside, is of a cylindrical forming about 5 inches in diameter and projects about 4 inches from the centre of a large slab of basalt. It is not possible to ascertain how much of the lingam is buried. The top is broken and has uneven surface.
There are different porches in the temple. One porch leads to the cell where the lingam is fixed. The second porch is in front with a row of pillars spanned by blocks of basalt and on the right side there is a sandstone image of nandi.
There are bells fixed in the ceiling and pilgrims are supposed to pull the bell ropes to announce their approach to the divinity.
To the east of the northern verandah of the temple there is a large masonry vat into which flows the water and milk offered to the lingam. The liquid in it is essentially a mix of milk, sandal paste and washing of flowers, which impart to it a fragrant smell and is treated as highly sacred.
Places of interest in/around Deoghar
Naulakha Temple in Deoghar
- Nandan Pahar - This is a small hill edging the town which hosts a famous Nandi Temple. It has been beautifully maintained by the local administration and speaks volume about the beauty of this place. This hill faces the famous Shiv temple. The Nandan pahar has a huge park for children. It also has a ghost house, a boot house, a mirror house and a restaurant.
- Basukinath (in Dumka Dist) - It is famous for its Shiva Temple, and the pilgrimage to Babadham is considered incomplete without paying homage at Basukinath. It is situated 43 km from Deoghar near the village of Jarmundi and connected by road. It is an indigenous temple bearing local art.
- Naulakha Mandir - It is situated 1.5 km away from Baba Baidyanath Temple. It is a nice visiting spot. This temple looks like the temple of Ramakrishna in Belur. Inside it there are idols of Radha - Krishna. Its height is 146 feet. The amount spent in construction of the temple was about Rs. 900,000 (9 lakhs). Hence it became known as Naulakha Temple.
- Rama Krishna Mission - a boarding school run by monks of RK Mission. The campus is full of greenery and has 12 football fields. The Ramkrishna Mission Vidyapith, a branch of Ramkrishna Mission, Belur Math, Howrah district, was established in 1922 with the objective of imparting modern education combined with the values of our ancient culture in the lines of the ancient Gurukula.
- Satsanga Ashram - A holy place for devotees of Thakur Anukulchandra. In the south-west of Deoghar there is a big Ashram established by Anukul Chandra which is called Satsang Ashram.On 24 september 2012 Twelve people died & fifty people injured by careless management by satsang committee which call Satsanga Deoghar disaster 
- Tapovan - Situated 10 km from Deoghar. There is a temple of Shiva which is the centre of attraction for pilgrims. The temple of Shiva is called Taponath Mahadeva. A number of caves are found in this hill. In one of the caves, a Shiva lingam is installed. It is said that Sage Valmiki came here for penance. Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari obtained Siddhi (success through penance) here.
- Rikhia Ashram - This Bihar School of Yoga (Sri Sri Panch Dashanam Paramhansa Alakhbarah) was established by Swami Satyananda Saraswati. Thousand of devotees from different corners of the world participate in a fair an annual festival and ceremony which is held in late November to early December. Foreigners are seen often in the town, especially between November and February. This ashram is indeed a sacred place and its charitable deeds greatly benefits the welfare of the local villages.
Deoghar talab known as Shivganga
- Shivganga - Situated just 200 meters away from Baidyanath Temple. When Ravana was taking the lingam to Lanka, he felt the urge for urination. He handed over the lingam to a Brahmin and went for urintation. After urination, he needed to wash his hands and be purified before holding the lingam. When he did not find any water source nearby, he made a blow with his fist on the earth and water came out and formed a pond. This pond is now known as Shivaganga.
- Harila Jori - Harila Jori is situated in the northern side of Deoghar, 8 km away from Baidyanath temple and 5 km away from Tower chowk. During ancient times, the area was full of Haritaki (Myrobalan) trees. This was the place where Ravana handed over the lingam to lord Visnu disguised as a Brahmin, and went for urination. A stream flows here and is known as Ravana Jori.
- Trikuth Parvat - It is situated 13 km away from Deoghar on the way to Dumka. There are three main peaks on the hill which is why it is called Trikutachal. The height of this hill is 1,350 feet (400 m). There is also a temple of Shiva at this place known as Trikutachal Mahadeva Temple. It is the mouth of river Mayurakshi. Here we also find an altar of the goddess of Trishuli. It is an attractive place with a cool stream flowing. Now here operates the Jharkhand's first ropeway built by Damodar Ropeway & Construction Company, Kolkata.On the height of 1000 ft. there is an Ashram named "TRIKUTACHAL ASHRAM". This Ashram now has been one of the most power ful spiritual place in all over India even in abroad also.To know its significants one has to go back in the year 1900. Param Pujya SRI SRI SWAMI SAMPADANANDA GURUMAHARAJ was the founder of this Trikutachal Ashram. Sri Sri Swami Sampadananda (Yadav Chndra Chakravorty) pet name used in home was born in 1899 in ROSHAN GIRI a remote area in Bangladesh.Early childhood he lost his mother and reared by his step mother.On the observation of his uncle Ramesh Chandara Chakravorty, he started his education.After getting 1st class marks in Matric Examination,he was admitted in college.After completing graduation his ambition was for higher degree, but destiny was not with him, his uncle Ramesh Chndra took his last breath and all burden fell on his shoulder.Yadav Chandra decided to be established through job.He searched for job. At that time British Gov.was ruling India. Yadav Chndra aspired to get admitted in Customs Deptt. there was a vacancy in Custom Deptt. Mr. clayton took an interview but yadav chandra told thoroughly the Bible. Mr. Clayton was astonished that how could this Indian boy hold this tremendous power to read Bible in such a manner. Mr. Clayton granted the job by promoting him as a Customs Accessor. Yadav Chandra did his duty very honestly and was transferred in Calcutta.He came in Calcutta from Bangladesh leaving his mother lonely in village, but he would always send money to his mother and get news from villagers. As I have told you Yadav Chandra did his duty very honestly his daily routine was from office to home. After coming home from office he always engrossed himself in sacred religious books to burn the light of spiritual quest. He was not satisfied in monotonous life in material world. He often attended Religious Assemblies to hear Spiritual Preachers. He would aspire to take initiation from Sri Ramkrishna Paramhansa in dream. He was not interested in job and wanted to enter a new life i.e. the outer life of material world. He resigned the service and went door to door in quest of spiritual satisfaction. Finally, he went to a Mandir near Deoghar now called "LILA MANDIR" The Ashram of LORD DAYANADA DEVA. He saw a Yogi was meditating by laping white ashes all over his body under a tree. As Yadav Chndra came close to HIM a type of electric power got into his body, Yadav became unconscious. After some time when he got in normal condition saw his Idle deity Sri Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa appear in the form of Lord DayaNanda Deva. His soul realised that Sri Ramakrisha was reborn as Dayananda Deva. Yadav Chndra took sannyas Diksha from Thakur and was advised to go to Trikut Parvat for long meditation.
After taking initiation Yadav became SAMPADANANDA (one and only assets among mny disciples of Thakur Dayananda). In 1924 he went to Trikut Parvat to know himself. In a small cave upon 1000 metre he sat for long & hard meditation. He emerged himself into deep mediatation.His meditation period was from 1924 to 1974 in which he became reticent for 10 years. He got enlightenment after hard meditation. At that time Trikut Parvat was surrounded with firce animals like leopard, bear, snake, etc. At the time of meditation he hardly could collect fruits and water to live, one would be very fortunate if one would find a person. At that time not a single person was found. Whatever blessing Swamijis gave his disciples would be fruitful. His speech was compared to be with the VEDA. Gradually villages were built underneath the hills. Villagers come to see the Yogi to get bleesings from him. Many people took initiation from BABA from different parts of country.Trikut Ashram was gradually constructed, small type of living room were built for disciple to stay in night.BABA organised 3 times "Viswa Santi Yagna" main motto was "Pray for World Peace". Many elite persons from Bihar & other state come and bowed down to baba to get peace.In 1987 25 June Mauni Amabasya Swami Sampadananda left this material world to be united with Param Pita (God).
- Mother Bhakti Prava Devi – A Divine Flame of Trikutachal Ashram and NUN of this Ashram is Sri Sri Maa. Sri Sri Maa Bhakti Prava Devi & his Sannyas Disciple Sri Sri Chndan Swami are running the Trikut Ashram. Sri Sri Maa former name was Rama Chandra was born in Calcutta in 1937 16 December.In 1952 Rama came with her parents in Deghar and meet Swami Sampadananda at Trikut Ashram. In 1977 Rama left home and stay in Trikut Ashram permanently. Sri Swami Sampadananda gave Sanyasini Diksha to Rama.Baba gave her name as Bhakti Prava.Sri Si Maa Bhakti Prava Devi is at the age of 74.Almost 500 people from all over the country took Diksha. Mother knows no caste, different cast of people come every day at Ashram to bow down Mother. Whatever she bless be fruitful.Mother remain always in different world, a world of deep thought, always see the omnipotent in her visible eyes.Mother dislike to answer futile questions of visitors. Trikutachal Ashram has no demand regarding donation, demand only purity and honesty from visitors. Sri Sri Chandan Swami came at Trikutachal Ashram in 1987 after passing away Sri Sampadananda. On that time Mother was alone in vast Trikut Hill. She got feared that being a lady how she would stay at Asram
being a lady. Baba told her not to worry a religious man would be arrived in front her when after he would left this world. Swamijis prediction reflected in Mother's mind and she embarressed the 26 year young man. Sri Chandan Swami took initiation from mother in 1987 and became Sannyasi(Monk). Now he managed the Ashram's day to day activities. He developed the Ashram in modern style by financial support of disciples.
Now TRIKUTACHAL ASHRAM is the heart of Spiritual thoughts & divine culture.
- Koiridih- A historical place near river side has an English time rest house with thousands of teak wood forest beautiful mountain view which is surrounded by Dighariya forest and a nice dam is coming. This village had a famous Ghandian freedom fighter name Late Ayodhya Prasad Singh. The High School of koiridih produced a number of skills students.
- Prabhu Jagadbandhu Ashrama - It is situated 4 km away from Deoghar on the way to Tapovan, near Charki Pahari crossing. The ashrama houses a stone-temple of Prabhu Jagadbandhu, a religious preacher born at a hamlet called Dahapara of Murshidabad, Bengal. Even a single night's stay at this small but beautifully flowery and green ashrama located within a pristine landscape can provide solace and tranquility to the city tourists.
- J.A.P 05 Camp (Dahijor Camp) - It is situated 9 km away from Deoghar on the way to dumka or Bahgalpur road, There is a beautiful Shiv temple (Shakti Nath Mandir) in front of J.A.P 05 main gate. That place surrounded by mountain and very greenery. You will find lots or play ground over there like football, basketball, handball, hokey, kabaddi, volleyball. this camp established in 1975.
- Ram Nivas Ashram: In this ashram Sri Sri Balananda Brahmachari Maharaj, a great yogi and guru used to stay and meditate. His disciple and the 2nd Mohanta (Head) of the ashram, Mohanananda Brahmachari also stayed in this place. This ashram, surrounded by trees and gardens has temples of Tripura Sundari, Radha- Krishna, and Bhagbati Devi. A memorial temple has also been created at this place where the ashes of Sri Mohanananda Brahmachari were put to rest.
- Jalsar Children Park: In this park, there are a lot of fun rides set up for children. There are dozens of amusing rides, including see-saw, toy train...etc.
- Maa Kali Shaktipeeth: it is in karnibagh area.the locality also called as maa kali nagar. deity maa is in the form of pindi,peoples of that area have great faith on her.
More about the place
Best place of tourist interest: trikuti parvat(hill). it has the only vertical ropeway of jharkhand.it takes about 7 minutes is taken to reach the top.the scene from the top is very very magnificent. one who comes to deoghar must visit it. according to the people living near it, few decades before it contained wild animals but in a forest fire every animal was killed . now there are only monkeys. Must visit village kumrabad rohini, six kilometer from deoghar, Founded by late shri kishori prasad modi.....now his grand son vijay shanker is take care of the village. He is a politician and social worker.The village is itself say the tradiation and culture of santhal pargana. The people are very helpful, the most non veg food is ATHE AND RICE.which is prepared by mutton and rice. it is great in taste.
IMPORTANT AND FAMOUS PERSONS OF DEOGHAR :-
The Former Foreign Secretary of India, Mr. Muchkund Dubey and Veteran TV Journalist Kishore Kumar Malviya come from Deoghar.
The Ex Principal District Judge of Jharkhand, Mr Ram Rudra Prasad Deo come from Deoghar.
Apresh Kumar Singh, Judge Jharkhand High Court,Ranchi come from Deoghar. Sanjay Chatterjee, Famous Footballer.